Medication Therapy Management Service for Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Before-and-After Study
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor manifestations, autonomic and neurological disorders and sensorial symptoms. Medication therapy management (MTM) consists of a service undertaken by pharmacists to optimize pharmacological therapy results. This way, the pharmacist monitors the treatment prescribed by the doctor and formulates a healthcare plan to guarantee the treatment’s effectiveness, safety and convenience, thereby improving the patient’s quality of life (QoL).
To analyze the effect of MTM upon medicine-related problems, motor symptoms, autonomic disorders and QoL of patients with Parkinson’s disease, and describe the pharmaceutical interventions.
Quasi-experimental uncontrolled before-and-after study carried out between September 2012 and March 2013 in a community pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy data were collected from medical prescriptions, patient diaries, medical charts and all the medicines (over-the-counter and prescription) brought by the patients to the appointment with the pharmacist. The medicine-related problems were classified as indication, effectiveness, safety and adherence. Adherence was measured through clinical interviews and the Morisky questionnaire. PD symptoms were assessed according to the patients’ and/or caregivers’ perceptions about the On/Off state of the motor symptoms and relief of the nonmotor symptoms. QoL was assessed using the PDQ-39 scores. The interventions were targeted to patients/caregivers and/or doctors, with pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures.
Seventy patients were followed up, showing a decrease in medicine-related problems (1.67 ± 1.34 to 0.8 ± 0.9 (p < 0.001), positive impact on adherence (from 37 to 10 non-adherent patients, p < 0.001), QoL improvement related to emotional wellbeing (p = 0.012) and autonomic disorder. Most interventions were performed directly with the patients (73.8%), including non-pharmacological guidance (28.5%), pharmacological guidance (24.3%) and rescheduling (13.6%).
To carry out MTM with PD patients, the pharmacist’s expertise needs to transcend the technical knowledge about the PD pharmacological treatment. The study showed a positive effect with a decrease in the medicine-related problems after the interventions, especially improving adherence and patients’ QoL.